What are the major problems affecting the human eye – and what’s being done?

Eye problems have been a scourge on humans for as long as history has been recorded. In the modern age, there are still lots of problems affecting human vision. Take macular degeneration, which is known to come in different varieties with differing levels of severity, or take glaucoma, which can be caused by high pressure in the eyes.

However, the good news is that action is being taken to reduce the risk that problems affecting the eye can pose. Advances in medical science mean that people can be provided with sight-saving operations, or they can be given medication or wearable assistance that transforms their quality of life and allows them to see more clearly. This article will explore some of the major health conditions that currently affect the human eye – and will explain how they are being tackled.

Macular degeneration

Age-related macular degeneration is one of the most problematic eye conditions that a person can develop. It occurs in people who have exceeded the age of 60, so it’s tied to old age. It affects a minuscule part of the retina in your eye called the macula – but its impact is far from small. It doesn’t usually lead to people becoming fully blind, but it does cause much lower vision.

The difficult thing about macular degeneration is that there are two types of it. “Dry” macular degeneration is tough, but the “wet” form developed by about a tenth of patients is much more serious. However, there are some positive developments on the horizon. Stem cell treatment is one possible option for those looking to manage this problem: some research has shown that transplanting retinal pigment epithelial cells could have a positive effect.


Glaucoma, meanwhile, is an eye condition that causes damage to the optic nerve inside your eyeball. Inside your eye, there’s some fluid that helps your eye perform its vital functions. It also helps put some pressure on your eye. However, when this fluid becomes too much, the pressure also becomes too much – and that leads to the crucial optic nerve inside your eye becoming damaged. At first, it’s not always guaranteed that you’ll be able to even notice that you’re experiencing this pressure as it doesn’t always lead to problems with your main line of sight – it just affects your peripheral vision instead. However, over time it can cause major problems with your main line of sight.

However, as is the case with macular degeneration, researchers are working hard to discover a way to either manage or cure glaucoma. There are lots of experts working in this field, and Dr. Rohit Varma is just one of them. He has worked on all kinds of solutions to the problem, such as the development of imaging techniques.


Astigmatism is an eye condition that causes you to lose focus when you look around. Often, the main consequence of astigmatism is blurred vision: this, in turn, can lead to a whole host of other medical problems, including eye strain, headaches and more. Many people who wear glasses actually do have some variety of astigmatism, though it’s usually not serious. In serious cases, treatment may be required.


When you develop cataracts, it can be a really unpleasant experience in lots of ways. It affects millions of people around the world, and it can cause significant damage to your vision. In the first instance, you’re likely to experience cloudy vision or see fading around significant hues. You could also develop double vision, and you’re likely to find it difficult to look at bright lights.

While cataracts don’t cause pain in many cases, you’ll probably experience discomfort as a result of looking at lights – which isn’t ideal. It can take decades for cataracts to make an appearance, so it’s worth being aware of the condition as you get older and familiarizing yourself with the symptoms in order to prevent problems from arising. Surgery is the main option for cataracts, and pioneering developments in this field mean that this is largely safe.

As two of the most important organs in the human body, the eyes are essential to look after, and for those who find themselves at risk of losing their eyesight, the worry is very real. Whether it’s the long-term decline involved in macular degeneration or it’s the pressure-related problems of glaucoma, there are lots of conditions that affect people’s eyes. However, there’s positive news on the horizon: with physicians and researchers across the US leading the way in eye research, those who suffer from vision problems have been thrown a lifeline.